Corns and Calluses
Corns are hyperkeratoses of the skin — small painful areas of thick hard skin. They often contain a deep conical centre, (where the corn is thickest), which presses into the nerves of the underlying skin.
Corns are indicative of concentrated pressure affecting a particular area. They often form on or in between the toes, where there is pressure from shoes, the ground, or other toes. If corns become too thick or inflamed, there is pain and sometimes swelling and redness.
A callus is a large area of thick hard skin caused by excess pressure or friction. Calluses usually form on the ball of the foot, the heel, and the underside of the big toe.
Under normal conditions, calluses form a protective function in these areas of increased pressure. When they become excessively thick, and cause pain or become unsightly, however, they can be shaved down.